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Essential Phonic Patterns Seldom Systematically Taught

Pattern

 A Few Sample Words Containing Pattern

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The Patterns of English Spelling

 

"un" Suffixes

 
-on = "un" common London apron pardon person reckon summon carbon Vol. 8   832-851
-an = "un" human African Christian pagan veteran Mexican Canadian American Vol. 8   852-856
-en = "un" leaden rotten dozen deaden lengthen listen widen lengthen happen Vol. 8   857-860
-in = "un" robin Franklin assassin toxin bulletin insulin Vol. 8   861-862
-ion = "yun" opinion union reunion onions rebellion battalion communion  Vols. 8/9  837 & 935
-ian = "yun" Italian civilian Sicilian Canadian Indian Vols. 8/9  853 & 936
-ain = "un" mountain certain chieftain fountain bargain Vol. 4            419
 

"unt" Suffixes

 
-ant = "unt" elegant ignorant significant applicant occupant lieutenant Vol. 2            254
-ent = "unt" different convenient innocent confident residents Vol. 2            255
 

"un-ss" Suffixes

 
-ance = "un-ss" elegance ignorance significance inheritance defiance Vol. 2            258
-ence = "un-ss"  violence coincidence experience evidence obedience Vol. 2            260
 

"und" Suffixes

 
-and = "und" Ireland Scotland Holland England Portland Maryland island Vol. 2            281
 

"ur" Suffixes

 
-or = "ur" labor   neighbor   harbor    rigor   valor   color   humor    glamor Vol. 6   675-681
-our = "ur" labour neighbour harbour rigour valour colour humour glamour Vol. 6            682
-ar = "ur" muscular cedar scholar popular particular peculiar Vol. 6   673-674
-ir = "ur" nadir elixir astir tapir kaffir bestir Vol. 6            675
 

"ul" Suffixes

 
el = "ul" label angel camel panel chapel barrel weasel travel Vol. 6   624-627
al = "ul" verbal medal decimal criminal trial rival withdrawal Vol. 8   818-827
ol = "ul" symbol idol pistol carol gambol petrol Bristol capitol Vol. 6            628
ul = "ul" mogul consul eyeful truthful respectful Vol. 6   629-631
 

"AK," "EK" & "IK" Suffixes

 
-ac = "ak" maniac zodiac shellac cognac almanac kleptomaniac Vol. 8            801
-ec = "ek" Aztek Alec Vol. 8            801
-ic = "ik" cubic Nordic terrific tragic psychic frolic cosmic picnic Vol. 8   802-816
 

"uh KUL" Suffixes

 
-ical = "uh KUL" chemical technical historical mathematical Vol. 8   802-816
-acal = "uh kul" maniacal kleptomaniacal xenomaniacal pyromaniacal Vol. 8            801
 

"uh BUL" Suffixes

 
-able = "uh bul" probable readable noticeable available variable Vol. 6   613-621
-ible = "uh bul" possible edible credible compatible irresistible Vol. 6   621-623
 

"uh TEE" Suffixes

 
ity = "uh TEE" probability possibility reality legality nationality Vol. 7   730-738
ety = "uh TEE" variety society piety anxiety fidgety notoriety Vol. 7            729
 

"us" Suffixes
Also combine with ci, ti, xi, gi, & ge digraphs

 
-ous = "us" tremendous fabulous ridiculous famous poisonous Vol. 8   867-874
-ious = EE us envious previous dubious amphibious studious Vol. 8   868-871
-eous = EE us hideous igneous miscellaneous spontaneous Vol. 8            867
 

ci = "sh" combines with
-ous, -on, -an, -al, -ent, -a, & -o Suffixes

 
-cious = "shus" precious suspicious gracious ferocious delicious Vol. 8            868
-cion = "shun" suspicion coercion Vol. 8            837
-cian = "shun" magician physician electrician musician politician Vol. 8            854
-cial = "shul" racial commercial special social crucial artificial Vol. 8            818
-cient = "shunt" efficient deficient sufficient ancient coefficient Vol. 9            912
-cia = "shuh" Marcia Felicia Alicia Patricia Vol. 9            912
-cio = "shoh" Ignacio pasticcio libeccio braggadocio Vol. 9            912
 

ti = "sh" combines with
-ous, -on, -an, -al, -ent, -a, & -o Suffixes

 
-tious = "shus" ambitious infectious repetitious cautious Vol. 8   870-871
-tion = "shun" ambitions infections repetitions cautions Vol. 8   838-851
-tial = "shul" partial initial credentials essential sequential martial Vol. 8            825
-tient = "shunt" patient quotient sentient impatient insentient Vol. 9            914
-tia = "shuh" militia inertia Portia Nova Scotia dementia Vol. 9            914
-tio = "shoh" ratio Horatio Vol. 9            914
 

xi = "sh" combines only with -ous

 
-xious = "shus" anxious noxious obnoxious fluxious influxious Vol. 9            917
 

Consonant + si digraph combines with -on

 
-sion = "shun" tension expulsion expansion suspension comprehension Vol. 8            836
 

ss = "sh" combines with -ure

 
-ssure = "shur" assure reassure pressure fissure Vol. 9            915
 

ssi = "sh" combines with -on & -an

 
-ssion = "shun" passion compassion impression obsession admission Vol. 8            834
-ssian = "shun" Russian Prussian Hessian Vol. 9            916
 

si = "zh" combines with -a, -an & -on

 
-sia = "zhuh" Asia euthanasia Tunisia anesthesia amnesia Persia Vol. 9            917
-sian = "zhun" Asian Caucasian artesian Persian Eurasian

Vol. 9            917

-sion = "zhun" vision invasion contusions exclusion corrosion explosion Vol. 9            918
 

s = "zh" combines with -ure

 
-sure = "zhur" pleasure exposure leisure treasure measure Vol. 9            919
 

t = "ch" combines with -ue, -ure, -une

 
-tue = "choo" virtue statue habitu� ("huh BICH choo AY") Vol. 9            923
-ture = "chur" feature nature fracture picture culture furniture vulture

Vol. 9   923-924

-tune = "chun" fortune fortunate unfortunate misfortune Vol. 9            924
 

ti = "ch" combines with -an and -on

 
-tian = "chun" Christian Sebastian Christianity Vol. 9            854
-tion = "chun" question suggestion combustion exhaustion indigestion

Vol. 8            851

 

gi = "j" combines with -on & -ous

 
-gion = "jun" region religion legion contagion regional

Vol. 9            920

-gious = "jus" religious contagious sacrilegious prodigious prestigious Vol. 9            920
 

gi = "j" combines with -on, -ous, & -ant

 
-geon = "jun" surgeon dungeon bludgeon pigeon Vol. 9            920
-geous = "jus" courageous gorgeous outrageous advantageous

Vol. 9            920

-geant = "junt" pageant sergeant  pageantry Vol. 9            920
 

gu & gue = "g"

 
-gu = "guh" guild guise disguise guitar guilt guilty Guinness Vol. 9            921
-gue = "guh" fatigue morgue vague league plague intrigue

Vol. 9            921

     
 

In words whose base is polysyllabic
the "SILENT E" does NOT
make the vowel say its name!"

 
-age = "ij" cabbage garbage carriage marriage sausage percentage Vol. 3            327
-age = "AH'zh" garage mirage sabotage camouflage entourage barrage Vol. 9            919
-ige = "EE'zh" prestige (c.f. loge, rouge, deluge) Vol. 9            919
     
-ace = "iss" menace palace terrace furnace solace tenace Vol. 3            343
-ice = "iss" service cowardice chalice armistice Eunice notice Vol. 3            343
-ice = "EE-ss" police Bernice (Nice, France) policemen Vol. 3            344
     
-ate = "it" private appropriate certificates illiterate ultimate Vol. 3   354-355
-ite = "it" definite exquisite prerequisite composite hypocrite Vol. 3            357
-ite = "eet" petite elite suite Vol. 3            358
     
-ile = "il" agile fragile futile fertile sterile facile docile Vol. 3            330
-ile = "eel" Mobile, automobile, Castile Vol. 3            330
     
-ine = "in" feminine masculine genuine discipline imagine Catherine Vol. 3            338
-ine = "een" gasoline submarine ravine machine quarantine sardines Vol. 3            336
     
 

In words that entered English from the French
the letters ch make the "sh" and the letters qu = "k"

 
ch = "sh" chef chute parachute cache mustache cr�che charades

Vol. 9   909-910

ique = "eek" technique unique pique Monique antique boutique Vol. 9            901
sque = "sk" Basque picturesque mosque bisque burlesque grotesque Vol. 9            902
 

In words that entered English from the German
the letters sch = "sh"

 
sch = "sch" Schick Schmidt schuss Schneider schlimazel schlep Vol. 9            911
 

In words that entered English from the Greek 
 the letters ch = "k" & ph = "f"

 
ch = "k" ache chaos anchor Michael character stomach Christ Vol. 9   905-908
sch = "sk" school scholar scheme scholastic Schenectady Vol. 9            908
ph = "f" prophet sphere nephew emphatic phases photograph Vol. 9   925-934
 

Reversals:   When the sounds DON'T
follow the letter order

 
-re = "ur" centre acre theatre mediocre orchestre ogre Vol. 6            683
-cle = "kul" miracle circle vehicle obstacle spectacle icicles Vol. 6   610-611
 

Even silent letters follow patterns

 
Silent b lamb comb dumb climb limb numb thumb plumb Vol. 9            958
Silent g gnat sign design foreign reign deign gneiss gnome Vol. 9            959
Silent h ghost spaghetti silhouette ghetto Vol. 9            960
Silent k know knowledge knife knit knee kneel knights Vol. 9            959
Silent l palm calm qualms psalms alms Vol. 9            960
Silent p pneumonia ptomaine pseudo coup psychology Vol. 9            961
Silent s debris corps rendezvous apropos (entre nous) escargots Vol. 9            959
Silent t debut depot rapport escargot Vol. 9            959
Silent w wrap sword whole wrong Wright writ writing wrist Vol. 9            960
Silent x faux pas, nouveaux riches, beaux Vol. 9           949
 

Vowel sounds in words whose base is polysyllabic
often are quite different than what is taught
 in grades 1 & 2

 
-e = "AY" debut fianc� fianc�e suede clich� attach� rendezvous Vol. 9   939-940
-et = "AY" buffet cabaret Chevrolet croquet bouquet valet Vol. 9            940
-er = "AY'r"(air) merit cherub inherit perish Sheraton therapist Bering Vol. 9    941-944
-eu = "OO" Reuben neutral deuce sleuth leukemia euchre Vol. 9            957
-ou = "OO" tourists goulash routine rouge cougar croupier rendezvous Vol. 9            950
-ou = "uh" courage double cousin journey trouble Vol. 9            952
-i = "EE" macaroni pinochle debris technique fatigue Rita Vol. 9            961
-y = long i cycle analyze psychopath dynamite dynasty dynamic Vol. 9    953-956
-y= short i gym dyslexia physical physician gypped gypsies Vol. 9    953-956
-i = "y" onion union junior savior behavior battalion Vol. 9    953-956
-au = "OH" chauffeur chauvinist gauche mauve Vol. 9            949
-eau = "OH" beau bureau plateau trousseau chateau Rousseau Vol. 9            949
-en= "AW'n" ensemble d�tente entree entrepreneur ennui rendezvous Vol. 9            949
-oi = "WAH" moi reservoir boudoir repertoire memoirs voila Vol. 9            949
-u= "w" suite suede cuisine suave linguistic persuasion Vol. 9            949


See also: The Patterns of English Spelling

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